Energy systems play a key role in harvesting energy from various energy sources and converting it into the forms of energy required for applications in various sectors such as utilities, industry, buildings, and transportation. Energy sources like fossil fuels can be used to provide energy according to customer needs and can be stored when not needed. But other energy sources, such as solar and wind, need to be collected when available and stored until needed. The application of energy storage systems can provide various advantages to the energy system, such as allowing an increase in the supply of renewable energy and better economic performance. In addition, energy storage is very important for power systems, enabling load balancing and peak shaving, frequency regulation, and improving power quality and reliability.
Energy storage systems have been in use for centuries and have undergone continuous improvement to reach their current level of development. To date, some storage types are relatively mature, but others still need to be developed. There are various types of energy storage systems for different application scenarios, including electrochemical energy storage and battery energy storage, thermal energy storage, thermochemical energy storage, flywheel energy storage, compressed air energy storage, pumping energy storage, magnetic energy storage energy, chemical energy storage, and hydrogen energy.